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- Consuls are the Roman Emperor Caligula and Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus
- January 24 - Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards.
- January 24 - Claudius succeeds his nephew Caligula as Emperor.
- January 25 - After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Emperor by the Roman Senate.
- Claudius makes Agrippa I king of Judea.
- Messalina, wife of Claudius, persuades Claudius to have Seneca the Younger banished to Corsica on a charge of adultery with Julia Livilla.
- Claudius restores religious freedom to Jews throughout the empire, but prohibits Jews in Rome from proselytising.
- An attack across the Rhine by the Germans is stopped by the Romans.