- Roman annexation of Judea as a client-state. King Judah Aristobulus II removed from power, while his brother John Hyrcanus II becomes king under Roman suzereinty.
- Julius Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero is senior consul.
- Cato the younger is tribune of the people.
- Catiline's conspiracy against the Roman Republic.
- September 23 - Augustus Octavius Caesar, first Roman Emperor
- Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa - Roman stateman and general
- Pharnaces II of Pontus - King of Pontus
- Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, Catiline conspirator.
- Mithridates VI, King of Pontus
- Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, pontifex maximus and general