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[[Image:Germanicus_Bronze_AS.jpg|thumb|Germanicus on Coin Struck Under Emperor ClaudiusIulius Caesar Claudianus Germanicus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of the early Roman Empire. He was called either Nero Claudius Drusus or Tiberius Claudius Nero at birth and received the agnomen "Germanicus", by which he is principally known, in AD 9, when it was awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania.

Germanicus' parents were Nero Claudius Drusus, son of Livia Drusilla, wife of Caesar Augustus, and Antonia Minor, daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia Minor, sister of Caesar Augustus. Claudius was his brother. Germanicus married Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, who gave him nine children. Two died whilst very young, another Gaius Iulius Caesar died in early childhood. The other six survived to grown age:

Germanicus was very popular among the citizens of Rome, who celebrated enthusiastically all his victories. He was also a favourite with Augustus, his grandfather in law, who, for some time, considered him as heir to the Empire. In 4, at the persuasion of Augusta (Augustus' wife), Augustus decided in favour of Tiberius, a stepson from Augusta's first marriage. Augustus compelled Tiberius to adopt Germanicus as a son and name him his heir. (Tacitus, Annals IV.57)

Germanicus assumed several military commands leading the army in the campaigns in Pannonia and Dalmatia. He is recorded to be an excellent soldier and inspired leader, loved by the legions. In the year 12 he was appointed consul after five mandates as quaestor.

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16. Whilst on the Rhine frontier, Germanicus found the remains of the three legions massacred in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9, buried them with high honors and recovered two of the legion's eagles.

After the victories in Germania, he was sent to Asia, where in the year 18 he defeated the kingdoms of Cappadocia and Commagena, turning them into Roman provinces.

In the following year, Germanicus died in Antioch, Syria. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius. This was never proven and Piso later committed suicide, but Suetonius suggests Tiberius' jealousy and fear of his adopted son's popularity and increasing power as a motive.

The death of Germanicus in what can only be described as dubious circumstances greatly destabilized Tiberius in Rome, leading to increased paranoia and the creation of a climate of fear in Rome itself.



Wikipedia-logo-en This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Germanicus. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the Romapedia Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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