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Timeline of Imperial Rome

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A Brief timeline of the Ancient Roman EmpireEdit

1st century BCEdit

  • 27 BC – End of the Republic, begin of the Roman Empire: Octavian is now called Augustus Caesar and becomes the sole ruler of Rome
  • 28/24 BC – Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis (see Cantabrian Wars)
  • 16/15 BC – Augustus' campaigns against the Alpine tribes
  • 12/7 BC – Tiberius and Drusus conquer Pannonia and campaign against the Germanic tribes

1st centuryEdit

  • 5 – Tiberius conquers Germania Inferior
  • 6 – Judaea becomes a Roman province
  • 6/9 – Rebellions in Pannonia and Dalmatia suppressed by Germanicus
  • 9 – Three Roman legions are ambushed and massacred by the Germans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
  • 11 – Germania Inferior and the Rhine secured by Germanicus
  • 14 – Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor
  • 14/15 – Germanicus campaigns against the Germanic tribes
  • 25 – Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir
  • 26 – Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy
  • 28 – The tribe of the Frisii rebel because of taxes
  • 31 – The fall of Sejanu
  • 37 –Caligula becomes emperor
  • 41 –Claudius becomes emperor
  • 43 – Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain
  • 54 –Nero becomes emperor
  • 60/61 – Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion that devastates Britain
  • 64 – Great Fire of Rome destroys 2/3 of the city; Nero blames the Christians and orders first persecution
  • 66/74 – Jewish rebellions in Judea
  • 68 – Nero commits suicide – end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; succeeded by Galba
  • 69 – Year of the four emperors: after the assassination of Galba, Otho and Vitellius briefly become emperors before *Vespasian's accession to power in the end of the year; Flavian dynasty begins
  • 69/70 – Civilis leads the Batavian rebellion in Germania Inferior; defeated by Quintus Petillius Cerialis
  • 71/84 – Pacification of Britain, conquest of modern Wales and Scotland
  • 79 –
  • Titus Flavius becomes emperor
  • August 24, An eruption of Vesuvius destroys much of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • 80 – Rome partially destroyed by fire
  • 81 – Domitian becomes emperor
  • 85 – King Decebalus of Dacia rebels and invades Moesia
  • 89 – Rebellions in Germania Inferior and Pannonia force peace with Decebalus of Dacia
  • 96 – Domitian killed – end of Flavian dynasty; succeeded by Nerva, the first of the Five good emperors
  • 98 – Trajan becomes emperor
  • 99 – Rome mostly destroyed by fire

2nd centuryEdit

  • 101/102 – First Dacian War
  • 105/106 – Second Dacian War; king Decebalus commits suicide and Dacia becomes a province
  • 106 – Building of Trajan's Forum and construction of Trajan's column
  • 113/117 – Trajan's successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
  • 115/117 – Jewish rebellions in Egypt
  • 117 – Hadrian becomes emperor
  • 121/125 – Hadrian travels through the Northern Empire
  • 122 – construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
  • 128/132 – Hadrian travels through Africa and the Eastern Empire
  • 131/135 - Jewish rebellions led by Simon bar Kokhba
  • 138 – Antoninus Pius becomes emperor
  • 140/143 – After a rebellion Antoninus conquers Scotland; construction of Antonine Wall begins
  • 150/163 – rebellions in Scotland, Antonine Wall is abandoned and reoccupied several times
  • 161 – Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor
  • 162/166 – Lucius Verus successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
  • 167 – The tribe of the Marcomanni crosses the Danube and invades Dacia
  • 168/175 – Marcus Aurelius' campaigns against the Marcomanni
  • 180 – Death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the Five good emperors; Commodus becomes emperor
  • 184 – Antonine Wall abandoned for the last time
  • 193 – Commodus is murdered. After the short two and a half month reign of Pertinax, Septimius Severus becomes emperor. There is opposition from first from Pescennius Niger, then from Clodius Albinus
  • 197 – Septimius Severus secures the empire after the battle of Lugdunum
  • 198 – Septimius Severus invades Parthia

3rd centuryEdit

  • 208/211 – Severus campaigns against the Caledonians
  • 211 – Severus dies. His son Caracalla becomes emperor
  • 217 – Caracalla murdered; Macrinus becomes emperor
  • 218 – Elagabalus usurps the throne
  • 222 – Elagabalus is murdered. Alexander Severus becomes emperor
  • 231-3 – War against Persia
  • 235 – Alexander killed in a soldier mutiny. Maximinus Thrax becomes emperor.
  • 238 – After revolts in Africa and Rome, Gordian III becomes emperor.
  • 241 – Victory over the Persians at Resaina.
  • 244 – Romans defeated at Misiche. Philip the Arab becomes emperor.
  • 249 – Decius usurps the throne with support from the Danubian legions.
  • 251 – Decius defeated and slain by Cniva, king of the Goths. Gallus becomes emperor.
  • 252 – King Shapur I of Persia defeats the Romans at Barbalissos.
  • 253 – Valerian and his son Gallienus become emperors. Shapur captures Antioch.
  • 257 – Valerian retakes Antioch. The Franks invade Gaul and Spain. The Alemanni invades Italy but are defeated at Milan.
  • 258 – Goths invade Asia Minor
  • 260 – Valerian is taken captive by the Persian. Retreating Persian army attacked by Odaenathus of Palmyra. Postumus proclaimed emperor in Gaul. He is also supported in Spain and Britain.
  • 267 – Odaenathus assassinated. His widow Zenobia takes control of Palmyra
  • 268 – Gallienus defeats Gothic invasion, but is later assassinated. Claudius II becomes emperor.
  • 269 – Postumus is killed. Victorinus proclaimed emperor in Gaul and Britain. The Palmyrenes takes Egypt and Syria. Claudius defeats the Goths at Naissus in Moesia.
  • 270 – Claudius dies of plague. Aurelian becomes emperor.
  • 271 – Aurelian campaigns against the Vandals, Juthungi and the Sarmatians. Victorinus is murdered and his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I emperor
  • 272 – Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa and takes Palmyra. Zenobia is captured. The province of Dacia is abandoned.
  • 273 – Palmyra revolts. The city is destroyed by Aurelian.
  • 274 – Aurelian defeats the army of Tericus at the Catalaunian fields.
  • 275 – Aurelian is murdered. Tacitus becomes emperor.
  • 276 – Tacitus dies. Probus becomes emperor.
  • 277 – The Burgundians, Longiones, Alemanni and Franks defeated.
  • 279 – Probus campaigns against the Vandals in Illyricum.
  • 282 – Carus proclaimed emperor. Probus killed by his own troops.
  • 283 – Carus dies during an invasion of Persia. His son Numerian becomes emperor.
  • 284 – Numerian dies. Diocletian becomes emperor.
  • 285 – Diocletian appoints Maximian co-emperor and assigns to him the western half.
  • 286 – Carausius revolts in Britain.
  • 293 – Diocletian appoints Constantius I and Galerius as caesar's. Carausius murdered by Allectus who proclaims himself emperor.
  • 296 – Allectus defeated and slain.
  • 299 – Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and the Carpi

4th centuryEdit

  • 301 – Diocletian issues the Edict on Maximum Prices.
  • 303 – Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
  • 305 – Diocletian and Maximian abdicates. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west.
  • 306 – Constantius dies at York. His son Constantine I proclaimed emperor. Maxentius, son of Maximian, proclaims himself emperor in Rome.
  • 307 – Maxentius reinvest his fater Maximian with the purple. Severus is put to death. Galerius lay siege to Rome.
  • 308 – Conference of Carnuntum. Diocletian convinces Maximian to step down. Licinius appointed Augustus.
  • 310 – Maximian again proclaims himself emperor, but is captured by Constantine. He commits suicide.
  • 311 – Galerius dies at Sardica. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them.
  • 312 – Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Licinius marries Constantine's sister Constantia
  • 312- Noone should edit this
  • 313 –

Licinus defeats Maximinus twice. Maximinus dies at Tarsus. Constantine issues Edict of Milan, making all religions legal.

  • 314 – Constantine defeats Licinius at Cibalae
  • 316 – Diocletian dies.
  • 317 – Constantine defeats Licinius on the Campus Ardiensis. Licinius forced to cede all his European provinces except Thrace.
  • 318 – Excommunication of Arius.
  • 324 – Constantine defeats Licinius at the Hebrus River and at Chrysopolis. Licinius abdicates.
  • 325 – The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
  • 326 – Constantine orders the death of his oldest son, Crispus.
  • 330 – Constantine makes Constantinople the capital.
  • 332 – Constantine campaigns against the Goths.
  • 334 – Constantine campaigns against the Sarmatians.
  • 337 – Constantine dies at Nicomedia. His three sons, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans become emperors.
  • 338 – Constantine II defats the Alemanni. War with Persia.
  • 340 – Constantine II invades Italy. He is ambushed and slain by Constans at Aquileia.
  • 341 – Constans and Constantius II issues a ban against pagan sacrifice.
  • 347 – The Donatists revolt in Africa.
  • 348 – Constantius defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.
  • 350 – Magnentius proclaims himself emperor in the west. Constans is captured and killed. Julius Nepotian attacks Rome with a band of gladiators
  • 351 – Constantius appoints his cousin Constantius Gallus as Caesar. Magnentius is defeated at Mursa.
  • 353 – Constantius defeats Magnentius at Mons Seleuci. Magnentius commits suicide.
  • 354 – Gallus is put to death.
  • 355 – Julian is appointed Caesar in Gaul.
  • 357 – Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg.
  • 360 – With a Persian war imminent, Constantius orders Julian to send several legions east. The troops mutinies and proclaims Julian Augustus.
  • 361 – Constantius dies of illness, naming Julian his successor. Julian openly declares himself a pagan, but his attempt at creating a pagan rejuvinal leads to nought.
  • 363 – Julian invades Persia, but forced to retreat, he is mortally wounded during a skirmish. the soldiers hail Jovian as emperor.
  • 378 – Valens is defeated and killed by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople.
  • 395 – Theodosius I divided the empire into two halves.

5th centuryEdit

  • 410 – Rome is sacked by Alaric I
  • 447 – Eastern Rome loses to Attila the Hun
  • 455 – Rome is plundered by the Vandals
  • 468 – Leo I launches a naval expedition against the Vandals
  • 475 – Romulus Augustus becomes emperor
  • 479 – Romulus Augustus forced to abdicate. Traditional date for the fall of the western Roman Empire.

6th century: The "Post-Roman" Roman EmpireEdit

  • 533 – Justinian I begins to restore the empire in the west; Belisarius defeats the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimum and the Battle of Ticameron
  • 536 – Belisarius recaptures Rome from the Ostrogoths
  • 552 – Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae
  • 553 – Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Mons Lactarius
  • 568 – The Lombards invade Italy; no further attempts to restore the empire
  • 607 – Emperor Phocas donates The Pantheon to the Pope and has a column erected in the Forum.
  • 663 – Constans II is the last emperor to visit Rome, and the city gradually slips out of imperial control.

See alsoEdit

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